Glaucoma is a group of eye illnesses that can damage the optic nerve and eventually cause blindness. The symptoms are often hard to spot because they appear slowly at first. In order to confirm a diagnosis of glaucoma, a thorough dilated eye exam is required. The health of the optic nerve can be examined by ophthalmologists during this important test. If a problem is detected, swift remedial processes can be implemented in order to prevent further vision loss or prevent the sneaky condition from causing blindness. This is the reason why it is very important to make an accurate diagnosis at the appropriate time to treat this condition. For this particular health issue, Choithram Memorial Hospital, the best hospital in Sierra Leone, is well-equipped with the most qualified medical specialists and instruments.

Types of Glaucoma

Glaucoma is classified into various categories, each with its own set of causes, symptoms, and progression:
1. Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma (POAG): This common type develops gradually and frequently shows no signs at start. It happens when the drainage canals in the eye become less effective, resulting in increasing intraocular pressure and gradual optic nerve injury.
2. Angle-Closure Glaucoma: This form causes an abrupt rise in intraocular pressure (IOP) as a result of blocked drainage angles and is characterised by a rapid appearance of symptoms such as nausea, headache, blurred vision, extreme eye pain and nausea.
3. Normal-Tension Glaucoma: This variant causes visual loss and optic nerve damage even when intraocular pressure is normal.
4. Secondary Glaucoma: The raised intraocular pressure that characterises this form of glaucoma can have its roots in a variety of medical issues, among which are just trauma, diabetes, inflammation, or reactions to medications.
5. Congenital Glaucoma: This unusual form can be present at birth or develop during childhood. It causes elevated intraocular pressure and, if left untreated, might cause permanent vision loss.


In order to diagnose glaucoma, categorise it, evaluate its severity, and set a baseline for treatment and monitoring, eye medical professionals use an array of tests and examinations.
1. Comprehensive Eye Exam: This includes tests of visual acuity, tonometry (eye pressure measurement), and an assessment of the appearance of the optic nerve.
2. Gonioscopy: This test helps identify the kind of glaucoma by evaluating the drainage angle of the eye.
3. Visual Field Test: Used to assess peripheral vision and look for any indications of glaucoma-related vision loss.
4. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT): This imaging technique helps evaluate glaucoma damage by measuring the thickness of the optic nerve fibres.
5. Pachymetry: Used to provide more precise readings of intraocular pressure by measuring the thickness of the cornea.
6. Dilated Eye test: This test helps with diagnosis and monitoring by enabling a better view of the optic nerve and retina by widening the pupil.
The best diagnostic centre in Freetown for glaucoma is located in the well-equipped Choithram Memorial Hospital in Sierra Leone


The goal of the Ophthalmologists in Sierra Leone in the best hospital among private hospitals in Freetown, Sierra Leone to treat glaucoma is effectively managing intraocular pressure in order to protect the optic nerve from additional damage and to maintain the patient's eyesight.
1. Medications: Reducing intraocular pressure can be accomplished by the use of eye drops or oral drugs. This is accomplished by either enhancing drainage or decreasing the formation of aqueous humour.
2. Laser Therapy: For the purpose of enhancing drainage or decreasing pressure, surgical procedures such as selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) or laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) can be of benefit.
3. Surgery: In the case that drugs or laser treatments do not produce the expected outcomes, surgical procedures such eye trabeculectomy, drainage implants, or minimally invasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS) may be examined as possible options to create new drainage channels or enhancing fluid outflow.
4. Lifestyle Adjustments: In order to effectively treat glaucoma, it is necessary to make certain modifications to one's lifestyle, such as engaging in regular physical activity, controlling other health disorders (such as high blood pressure or diabetes), avoiding activities that raise eye pressure, and going to the eye doctor for frequent medical examinations.

Final thoughts

Through thorough eye exams, it is important to accurately identify the type of glaucoma that a person has. Choithram Memorial Hospital in Sierra Leone uses advanced tests and a variety of medicines to find and treat glaucoma very well. This allows for individualised treatment plans that protect the health of the optic nerve and maintain vision.